### Introduction

### Materials and Methods

### 1. Study design

### 2. Sample

### 3. Data collection

### 4. Measurements/tools

^{nd}tool, the Braden scale, developed in 1985 by Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom, is typically characterized as the gold standard for PI risk assessment as it had a 83% sensitivity and 64% specificity [3,15]. The scale evaluates a patient’s risk for developing PIs based on six sub-scales or risk factors: sensory perception, moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction and shear. The total Braden score ranges from 6 to 23, with scores less than 18 indicating at-risk patients [6,7].

### 5. Statistical analysis

*p*< 0.05 was considered significant.

### Results

*p*< 0.001; Table 1). The 2 largest ethnic groups were Asian and Caucasian, 58% and 33% respectively. Ethnicity was not a significant factor for PI. The median hospital length of stay was significantly different. Patients with PI had a median stay of 32 days whereas patients without PI had a median stay of 14 days (

*p*< 0.001). The PI group had a higher percentage of death (29%) compared with the non-PI group (11%,

*p*= 0.02). There was no significant difference in the percentage of tissue perfusion failure (defined as percentage of individual’s records that were either baseline < 30 or delta < 30) between the PI and non-PI group (

*p*= 0.0597, Table 2). The non-PI group had a lower percentage of tissue perfusion failure (median = 0%) compared with the PI group (median = 11.54%), but it was not statistically significant. There were significant differences in the total Braden score (defined as percentage of individual’s recorded total Braden scales that belonged to extra-high/high/medium/low risks). Patients with PI had a higher proportion of Braden scale scores which were high (54.55% v. 4.53%;

*p*= 0.001) or medium risk (27.27% v. 12.99%;

*p*= 0.0097), but a lower proportion of scores which were low risk (0% v. 75.73%;

*p*= 0.001).

*p*= 0.03) after adjusting for other factors in the model. Additionally, each 1% increase in the percentage of high/extra-high risk of total Braden score within each patient was associated with the increase in the odds of PI development by 3% (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.05,

*p*< 0.001) after adjusting for other factors in the model.